SAPPHIRE

Stone of wisdom and enlightenment.
Sapphire is a variety of the mineral corundum. This stone is second only to diamond in hardness, having a hardness rating of 9 on the Moss scale.
Interestingly, in mineralogy, only blue-colored corundums are called sapphires, while in jewelry, all corundums are considered sapphires, except for purple-pink-red, called rubies.
Sapphires, like tourmalines, according to the classification related to jewelry, can be of a variety of colors: blue, yellow, orange, green, and even completely colorless.
It is worth noting that we inherited such a discrepancy in classifications from ancient times, when it was not possible to establish the exact name of the mineral, therefore noble red stones (rubies, garnets, spinel) were called "lal", and blue ones (including sapphires) " baus".
Main applications of artificially grown sapphires:

- Jewelry business.
- Resistant to impact, abrasion, temperature, ionizing and ultraviolet radiation optics. Including glass for gadgets, bulletproof glass for military equipment.
- Substrates of semiconductor microcircuits.
- Substrates for optoelectronic devices.
- Additive-activated working fluid for solid-state lasers.
Classic blue sapphires owe their color to titanium and iron impurities. Also in sapphires, one can often observe such properties as pleochroism and asterism.
Due to their wide application (and sapphires are used not only in jewelry), they learned how to grow them artificially, and quite a long time ago - back in 1904. It should be noted that artificially grown gem-quality sapphire is not inferior in its characteristics to natural sapphire, and, accordingly, its value is not underestimated. At the same time, of course, most of the artificially grown sapphires are used in industry, while natural sapphires and their imitations made of glass and plastic predominate in jewelry.

Sapphire is said to radiate powerful cosmic energy. It strengthens fidelity and prudence in a person, protects against fear and treachery, helps to maintain concentration and purity of the soul, cools passion.

This stone kindles the fire of creativity, helps to awaken an extraordinary emotional vision and perception of life. It gives clarity to thoughts, arouses a thirst for knowledge, strengthens memory. Sapphire gives decisiveness and courage to insecure people. But it is not exactly.